Anaemia is defined as a low number of red blood cells. It is reported as a low hemoglobin or hematocrit. Hemoglobin is the main protein in your red blood cells, that carries oxygen, and delivers it throughout your body.
THOSE SUSCEPTIBLE TO ANAEMIA
are Women, Children and Elderly with terminal diseases.
SYMPTOMS generally include:
Dizziness, lightheadness, Headache
Pains (bones, chest, belly, and joints) retarded growth (children and teens),
Shortness of breath
Pale or yellow skin,
Cold hands and feet
Tiredness or weakness
TYPES and CAUSES
There are more than 400 types of anemia, and they’re divided into three groups:
1. Anaemia caused by blood loss
2. Anaemia caused by decreased or faulty red blood cell production
3. Anàemia caused by destruction of red blood cells
ANAEMIA CAUSED BY BLOOD LOSS
This happens during bleeding. Most times happens over a period of time and goes unnoticed. Causes can include:
a : Gastrointestinal conditions such as ulcers, hemorrhoids, gastritis (inflammation of the stomach), and cancer
b: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen, which can cause ulcers and gastritis
c: Mensturation, especially if there’s too much bleeding
d :Post-trauma or post surgery.
ANAEMIA CAUSED BY DECREASED OR FAULTY RED BLOOD CELLS PRODUCTION
In this type of anaemia, the body may not create enough blood cells, or they may not work the way they should. Conditions associated with these include:
–Bone marrow and stem cell problems
[ Aplastic anaemia which happens when there is not enough stem cells or none at all. This can be genetic or due to injured bone marrow by medications, radiation, chemotherapy, or infection,
Lead poisoning. Sometimes, there’s no clear cause.
Thalassemia occurs when there is a problem with hemoglobin formation.
It’s usually genetic and usually affects people of Mediterranea, African, Middle Eastern, and Southeast Asian descent.]
[ Iron-deficiency anaemia
Occurs when there is not enough of the mineral iron in your body. Your bone marrow needs iron to make hemoglobin. This can be caused by:
a. A diet without enough iron, especially in infants, children, teens, vegans, and vegetarians
b. Certain drugs, foods, and caffeinated drinks
c. Digestive conditions such as Crohn’s disease, or if you’ve had part of your stomach or small intestine removed
d. Donating blood often
e. Endurance training
f .Pregnancy and breastfeeding using up iron in your body
g. Menstrual period
f. A common cause is chronic slow bleed, usually from a Gastrointestinal source].
-Sickle cell anaemia
[ Sickle cell anaemia
is a disorder where red blood cells which are usually round, become crescent-shaped because of a problem in the genes. They break down quickly, so oxygen doesn’t get to the organs, causing anemia.
The crescent-shaped red blood cells can also get stuck in tiny blood vessels and cause pain].
specifically b12 or folate.
[ This happens when you aren’t getting enough vitamin B12 and folate. Majorly from
diet. If you eat little or no meat. If you overcook vegetables or don’t eat enough of them.
They are -Megaloblastic (poor supply) and Pernicious anaemia (poor absorbtion) Other causes includes: medications, alcohol abuse, and intestinal diseases.
A complete blood count (CBC) test will measure the amount of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and other parts of the blood like white blood cells, checking the shape of red blood cells, and looking for unusual cells. And
Reticulocyte count to check for immature red blood cells.
Article written by
SCIENTIST ESEGHILE JENNIFER